The Mythical Deities of Zoroastrianism

The Mythical Deities of Zoroastrianism

The Mythical Deities of Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions, boasts a rich and vibrant mythology filled with powerful deities, mythical creatures, and epic battles between good and evil. This intricate tapestry of myths has played a crucial role in shaping the faith's moral principles, worldview, and understanding of the cosmos.

1. Ahura Mazda: The Supreme God

At the heart of Zoroastrianism lies Ahura Mazda, the supreme and all-knowing creator god. His name translates to "Wise Lord" or "Lord of Wisdom," reflecting his role as the embodiment of goodness, light, truth, and cosmic order. Ahura Mazda is not depicted in human form, emphasizing his abstract and transcendent nature. Instead, he is often symbolized by fire, representing his radiant purity and illuminating power. Ahura Mazda is responsible for the creation of the universe, including the six Amesha Spentas, divine beings who embody his attributes and act as his agents in the material world.

2. The Amesha Spentas: The Divine Attributes

The Amesha Spentas, meaning "Immortal Holy Ones," are seven divine emanations of Ahura Mazda, each representing a specific divine quality. They serve as intermediaries between the supreme god and humanity, guiding creation towards truth and goodness.

  • Spenta Mainyu: Represents the Holy Spirit and the creative power of Ahura Mazda.
  • Vohu Manah: Embodies Good Purpose and represents the ideal way of thinking and living.
  • Asha Vahishta: Represents Best Truth and symbolizes the order and justice that uphold the universe.
  • Khshathra Vairya: Represents the Desirable Kingdom and embodies the concept of righteous sovereignty.
  • Spenta Armaiti: Represents Holy Piety and symbolizes devotion to Ahura Mazda and his values.
  • Haurvatat: Represents Wholeness and embodies the concept of perfect health and prosperity.
  • Ameretat: Represents Immortality and symbolizes the ultimate goal of spiritual liberation.

3. Angra Mainyu: The Evil Spirit

Ahura Mazda's arch-nemesis is Angra Mainyu, the destructive spirit who embodies evil, darkness, and lies. His name translates to "Destructive Spirit," signifying his role as the force of chaos and negativity in the universe. Angra Mainyu is not an equal opposite of Ahura Mazda but rather a lesser being who constantly challenges and seeks to disrupt the good creation of the supreme god. He is associated with demons and negative emotions like greed, envy, and violence.

4. The Yazatas: Lesser Deities

The Yazatas, meaning "worthy of worship," are a diverse group of lesser deities who represent natural forces, concepts, and ideals. They are seen as benevolent beings who assist Ahura Mazda in maintaining order and goodness in the world. Some of the most prominent Yazatas include:

  • Mithra: God of light, contracts, friendship, and cosmic order.
  • Anahita: Goddess of water, fertility, healing, and wisdom.
  • Tishtrya: God of rain, fertility, and the celestial waters.
  • Verethragna: God of victory, war, and heroic strength.

5. The Fravashis: Guardian Spirits

The Fravashis, meaning "those who choose," are guardian spirits who act as protectors and guides for individuals and communities. They are believed to be the pre-existing souls of all living beings, guiding them towards their destiny and providing spiritual support.

6. The Daeva: Demons

In contrast to the benevolent Yazatas stand the Daeva, malevolent spirits who embody negative qualities and serve Angra Mainyu. Their name translates to "demons," reflecting their role as agents of chaos and evil in the Zoroastrian worldview. The Daeva are associated with various vices and destructive forces, including:

  • Aka Manah: Evil Thought, representing negative thinking and destructive intentions.
  • Indra: The embodiment of violence, war, and tyranny.
  • Sauru: The demon of drought and disease, symbolizing destruction and negativity.
  • Azhi Dahaka: A three-headed serpent representing greed, envy, and tyranny.

The Daeva are constantly at odds with the Yazatas, representing the ongoing struggle between good and evil in the universe. Zoroastrians believe that resisting the temptations of the Daeva and choosing the path of righteousness is crucial for attaining spiritual progress.

7. The Dualistic Nature of Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism is fundamentally a dualistic religion, emphasizing the constant struggle between good and evil, represented by Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu, respectively. This duality permeates all aspects of the faith, from the creation story to the moral choices individuals face in their daily lives. The Zoroastrian concept of free will plays a pivotal role in this struggle, as humans are believed to have the power to choose between the forces of good and evil.

The dualistic nature of Zoroastrianism also highlights the importance of individual responsibility. Zoroastrians believe that each person has a duty to actively participate in the cosmic battle between good and evil by choosing righteous thoughts, words, and deeds. This emphasis on personal responsibility is a defining characteristic of Zoroastrianism and continues to influence its followers today.

8. The Role of Myth in Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrian myths play a vital role in shaping the faith's moral principles, worldview, and understanding of the cosmos. These stories serve as a source of guidance, inspiration, and instruction for living a righteous life. They provide examples of heroes and villains, illustrating the consequences of choosing good or evil.

Zoroastrian myths also offer profound insights into the nature of the universe and the struggle between good and evil. They explain the origins of creation, the purpose of human existence, and the ultimate destiny of souls. By understanding these myths, Zoroastrians gain a deeper appreciation for their faith and their place within the cosmic order.

9. Zoroastrianism and Other Religions

Zoroastrianism has influenced various other religions and philosophical systems throughout history. Its dualistic concepts of good and evil, free will, and the afterlife have resonated with thinkers across cultures.

Zoroastrianism shares similarities with other monotheistic religions like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, particularly in its emphasis on a single supreme god and the importance of moral righteousness. However, Zoroastrianism's unique concept of a dualistic struggle between good and evil sets it apart from these other faiths.

The influence of Zoroastrianism can also be seen in the development of Gnosticism, a philosophical and religious movement that emerged in the early centuries of the Common Era. Gnosticism adopted Zoroastrian ideas about a hidden divine spark within humans and the struggle against evil forces in the material world.


What is the main difference between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu?

Ahura Mazda is the supreme god of goodness, light, and truth, while Angra Mainyu is the evil spirit who represents darkness, lies, and destruction.

What are the Amesha Spentas, and what do they represent?

The Amesha Spentas are seven divine emanations of Ahura Mazda who represent various divine qualities, such as Good Purpose, Best Truth, and Desirable Kingdom.

What is the role of the Yazatas in Zoroastrianism?

The Yazatas are benevolent deities who represent natural forces and concepts, assisting Ahura Mazda in maintaining order and goodness in the world.

What is the significance of free will in Zoroastrianism?

Free will is a crucial concept in Zoroastrianism, as humans are believed to have the power to choose between good and evil, playing an active role in the cosmic battle between these forces.

How has Zoroastrianism influenced other religions and philosophies?

Zoroastrianism's dualistic concepts and emphasis on moral righteousness have influenced various other religions and philosophical systems throughout history, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Gnosticism.

The Mythical Deities of Zoroastrianism